LABORATORY PROCEDURES AND TEST DATA
The objective of the tests was to determine if any Volatile Organics (VOA's), selected from compounds commonly found in hazardous waste sites, would be absorbed by the Fiberglass Reinforced Epoxy casing from an aqueous solution, using concentrations of organics comparable with those experienced in pollution plume surveys.
Simulation of monitor well casing conditions was sought by testing fractured pieces, exposing the inner structure as would be seen by slotted material. All testing and analytical services were performed by Rocky Mountain Analytical Laboratory of Arvada, Colorado.
Samples of Fiberglass Reinforced Epoxy casing were supplied from normal production material by random selection. No pretreatment or special procedures occurred other than a municipal water rinse. The test protocol followed recommendations of a committee comprised of members of Region 8 E.P.A., Colorado Department of Health and The City and County of Denver Environmental Department. The sorption tests were run for a period of 72 hours. Figure "A" compares Fiberglass Reinforced Epoxy results with one hour tests on Teflon, PVC, and Polyethylene extracts from Barcelona, Helfrich and Garske "Sample Tubing Effects on Groundwater Samples" published in Analytical Chemistry 1985; Pgs. 57, 460464.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS SORPTION TEST DATA
(ENCO. F.P. epoxy) TEFLON PVC
Fluid Volume 1 0.03686 0.03167 0.03167
Sample Surface Area m2 0.00538 0.01995 0.01995
Vol/Surf. Area Ratio I/m2 6.85 1.587 1.587
Organic Conc. in Fluid ug/l
Start 413.7 400 400
Finish 330.0 250 10
Organic Wt. in Fluid ug
Start 15.25 12.67 12.67
Finish 12.17 7.94 0.26
Organic Sorbed ug 3.07 4.728 12.409
Organic Sorbed ug/m2 570 237 622
Organic Sorbed ug/l 83.5 150 392
Conc., Organic in Fluid
(In terms of sample surface area) 15.250 12.670 12.670
0.00538 0.01995 0.01995
Start ug/m2 2835 630 630
Finish ug/m2 2260 397 13
Average ug/m2 2559 510 320
% Depletion of Organic 20% 38% 98%
in 72 hrs. in I hr. in I hr.
Sources: Barcelona, et. al., Sample Tubing Effects on Groundwater Samples, Analytical Chemistry, 1985.
Rocky Mountain Analytical Laboratory Tests on FWS Inc. F.R.E. Casing
A Test solution of the target compounds was prepared in carbon filtered, de-ionized water. The components and actual / measured concentrations were:
Actual Conc. Measured Conc.
( ug/l) ( ug/l)
Benzene 109 116
Toluene 105 97.6
Methyl ethyl Ketone 99.4 104
Dichloromethane 100 ill
1, 1, 1,Trichloroethane 100 97.4
Trichloroethylene 99.4 104
Carbon Tetrachloride 105 101
TOTALS: 717.8 731
Three sets of test solutions were prepared in 40 ml glass vials with Teflon backed Silicone septa seals. Each set consisted of a background vial and a test vial, which contained weighed pieces of broken pipe. The sets were prepared and filled with a test solution as follows:
Grams of broken pipe in vial.
Set 1 0 5.59
Set 2 0 6.13
Set 3 0 6.56
The surface area of the broken pieces used in each test averaged .054 cm2. Each test vial contained broken pipe and the test solution at an approximate ratio of 7:1. The vials were shaken and stored for 72 hours at 4 degrees C, in the dark.
LEACH TESTS USING SOLVENT DOPED LEACHATE
Leach solutions were prepared containing 300 ug/I of volatile organic solvents, 400 ug/l of halogenated organic solvents and three (3) surrogate spike compounds in carbon filtered, deionized water.
After 72 hours contact with fractured pieces of fiberglass reinforced epoxy casing, no additional compounds or increases in the doped organic solvents were found in the leachate.
F.W.S. Priority Fiberglass Reinforced Epoxy has no intrinsic ability to yield priority pollutant compounds.
Tests of finely ground epoxy casing and long term tests on F.R.E. casing samples using carbon filtered, deionized water have confirmed this interpretation. Other researchers have noted that field conditions may be better simulated by casing exposure to volatile organic solvents commonly found at low concentration in groundwater. A 72 hour test was designed to examine this possibility.
Samples of fiberglass reinforced epoxy casing, supplied by the manufacturer and untreated or rinsed with anything except common tap water, were used for all tests.
Tests were run for 72 hours. Testing and analyses were carried out by Rocky Mountain Analytical Laboratories of Arvada, Colorado, an EPA certified and approved lab.
A test solution of the following compounds was prepared in carbon filtered, D.I. water:
Compound Concentration ( ug/l )
Methylethyl Ketone 99.4
1,1,1 .Trichloroethane 100
Carbon Tetrachloride 105
TOTAL: 717.8 ug/l
Surrogate spike compounds were added and recovery percentages were:
Component Ref. Test A Test B
Bromochloropropane 104 107 101
Deuterodichloromethane 118 119 121
Deuterobenzene 117 112 112
E.P.A. PRIORITY POLLUTANT ORGANICS
Volatile Organic Analyses (VOA/VOC) were performed using EPA Method 624. Aliquots of the samples are placed in a sparging device.
Internal standards and deuterinium labeled surrogates are added to verify the analytical results and provide quantitative and qualitative references for each sample.
The samples are then purged with Helium and the VOC's are transferred to the gas stream. The organics are removed from the gas stream with a Tenax / Silica Gel trap. When purging is complete, the trap is rapidly heated and the trapped organics transferred to the analytical chromatograph column of a gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer (GC/MS).
As the individual components elute, complete mass spectra are collected and stored by a computer system . The data are then processed by custom computer programs and also evaluated manually to detect and quantify Priority Pollutants. Identifications are verified by comparison of the sample component mass spectrum and retention time to those of the standard components.
Base / Neutral and Acid (BN/A) compounds were analyzed using EPA method 625.
Aliquots of the samples are extracted first at basic and then at acidic pH's with Methylene Chloride. The extracts are concentrated and analyzed by GC/MS using the same approach as the Volatile Organics.
Pesticides and PCB's were analyzed using EPA method 608.
Aliquots of the sample are extracted with Methylene Chloride at a neutral pH. The extracts are then concentrated and analyzed using an electron capture/gas chromatograph. Identification of components is based on the retention times of the unknown compared to those of the standards. All identifications are confirmed using a second GC column.
Major non-Priority Pollutant chromatograph peaks in the volatiles, base/neutrals and acid fractions are identified. The best computer matches of the unknown mass spectrum to the EPA/NIH/MSDC (commonly known as the NBS library) mass spectra data base of 25,000 compounds are selected and reviewed by an analyst experienced in the interpretation of mass spectra. If no specific identification can be readily made, the chemical type or class is determined and reported. In either case, these identifications are verified by comparison with a standard.
Estimates of the concentrations are made by comparison of the unknown to the response of the nearest internal standard.
Analyses were performed using EPA Method 624 from the Federal Register, Vol. 44, No. 233, Monday, Dec. 3. 1979.
The GC/MS was calibrated to meet EPA specifications for BFB and then calibrated with a standard mix of the components of interest. Concentrations were calculated using the method of internal standards.
No extraneous component peaks were observed and no increase in concentration of the Volatile Organic solvents occurred. It is concluded that exposure to this group of Organic solvents does not result in the leaching of Priority Pollutant compounds.
Therefore, it is concluded that the use of F.W.S. Fiberglass Reinforced Epoxy Casing and Well Screens will not complicate sampling or Its interpretation.
Analyses for the targeted compounds were performed by GC/MS
The background concentrations for each target component were determined for Table 2 and are shown on the previous page. The measured concentrations are considered the reference points for comparison to the test samples.
The table lists the reference, Set 1 Test and Set 2 Test values measured and the average of Sets 1 and 2. The absorbance of each component was determined by calculating the weight of the component losses and expressing this as absorbance per unit surface area of sample.
No extraneous component peaks were observed in the Test Samples.
72 HOUR CONTACT
RESULTS OF ABSORBANCE TEST FOR SELECTED VOLATILE ORGANICS
(CONCENTRATIONS IN ug/1)
Set I Set 2 Sets I and 2
Component Reference Test Test Tests
Benzene 116 97.6 98.0 97.8
Toluene 97.6 79.1 82.2 80.7
Methylethyl Ketone 104 92.5 91.7 92.1
Dichloromethane 111 99.4 101 100.2
1, 1, 1, Trichl oroethane 97.4 76.2 82.5 79.4
Trichloroethylene 104 69.1 73.4 71.2
Carbon Tetrachloride 101 77.0 81.4 79.2
Organic Sorbed, Chlorinated Compounds...................................................... 3.07 ug.
Volume to Surface Area Ratio............................................................................... 6.85
Concentrations of Chlorinated Organics in Fluid.......................................... 2,835 ug/m2
Absorbance of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons ..................................................... 570 ug/m2
Each analysis was monitored for analytical errors by the addition of surrogate spike compounds. Immediately before analysis, each sample was spiked with 100 ug/l of 3 surrogate compounds. Their recoveries indicate that the analyses were consistent
throughout the test.
SURROGATE SPIKE - PERCENT RECOVERY
Component Reference Set I Test Set 2 Test
Bromochloropropane 104 107 101
Deuterodichloromethane 118 119 121
Deuterobenzene 117 112 112
THE FOLLOWING PAGES ARE THE LABORATORY ANALYSES OF THE TESTS THAT WERE RUN ON FIBERGLASS WELL SYSTEMS’ CASINGS.